1, the logistics and packaging logistics understanding Logistics refers to the goods from the supply to the recipient of the physical flow, according to actual needs, transport, storage, handling, handling, packaging, circulation processing, distribution, information processing and other functions of organic combination To achieve the user requirements of the process. ("People's Republic of China national standard logistics terminology") packaging logistics is the material from the supplier to the needs of the physical movement, mainly to create time value and place value and sometimes create a certain value of the activities of the processing.
Packaging logistics from a narrow perspective, refers to the packaging itself as a product to meet the needs of the market, from the production process to the end of the manufacturing process until the use, processing, recycling movement process.
From the traditional packaging as a subsystem of the logistics system point of view, packaging logistics can be seen as to support the logistics process and meet consumer needs for packaging products and packaging systems development of a means and methods.
It can be seen that packaging logistics is a dynamic collective system, is oriented to the market, facing the environment, for the packaging of goods logistics, safe and effective, convenient, cost minimization, profit maximization principle, packaging as a tool to plan, And the control process. In other words, the field (or system) involved in the packaging and logistics is not only the field of production and processing of packaging materials and packaging, but also the field of packaging for packaging, handling, storage, storage and distribution of the packaging itself, and the packaging Product handling, storage, storage and distribution of the field of logistics; related to the packaging waste disposal, recycling, recycling and re-use of environmental protection areas; eventually related to information and communication through the design and decoration to promote the promotion of the market areas. Packaging logistics is this "four areas of the interface to form a large complex interaction with the interaction system.
2, the value of packaging logistics reflected
Packaging logistics can create value, which is an innovation in circulation theory, which has changed the long tradition of many economists and even more authoritative understanding of the traditional theory of packaging circulation, that is, to change the circulation of packaging only as "preservation and protection "," Bridge and link "the role of understanding, giving the packaging circulation to create value of the initiative and positive significance. Of course, although packaging logistics has a valuable role, but the essence of packaging logistics is not to create value but to provide services, to create value is only a derivative of the service, or packaging logistics to create value of the theoretical understanding, Level, high value-added.
Packaging logistics has become a new economic growth point, not only theoretical basis, but also a realistic basis. According to incomplete statistics, the total consumption of packaging logistics in about 600 billion US dollars (of which 30% of industrial packaging; 70% of civilian consumer packaging). China's packaging industry output value of about 50 billion US dollars, only one-twelfth of the world. According to per capita packaging expenditure to see the developed countries (North America, Japan, for example) to 625 US dollars, while China is 30 US dollars, a difference of nearly 20 times. China's current packaging and logistics costs accounted for 16.7% of GDP, higher than developed countries nearly doubled.
Expected "Eleventh Five-Year" period, the Chinese packaging industry's total output is expected to reach 450 billion yuan, and maintain an average annual growth rate of 7%. From 2011 to 2015, the total output is expected to exceed 600 billion yuan, the average annual growth rate of about 16% level. By product classification, China's paper packaging products output to 2015 up to 36 million tons, plastic packaging products 9.46 million tons, metal packaging products 4.91 million tons, 15.5 million tons of glass packaging products, packaging machinery 1.2 million sets. According to the experts estimate that in the Chinese mainland, the loss of goods, damaged and backlog of inventory accounted for more than 60% of the cost of logistics; industrial enterprises working capital turnover rate of 2.16 times / year, while the developed countries is our 8 times, 15 times / year. And poor logistics is caused by low cash flow rate of the main reasons.
(Reference: "2006 China Packaging Industry Market Research and Development Forecast" article) These figures show that: with the rapid development of China's national economy, foreign trade exports growth, multinational companies and their branches around its integrated business strategy China's packaging industry is a great potential for development of the industry, will have a broad market prospects, and packaging logistics will also be the future of China's packaging industry is a great potential for the development of the industry, Become a new economic growth point.
Second, green logistics
1, green logistics and its characteristics green logistics
Is from the perspective of environmental protection on the modern logistics system to study the formation of a symbiosis with the environment of the integrated cycle logistics system to change the original economic development and logistics between the one-way relationship between the suppression of logistics harm to the environment, to take harmony with the environment Get along with the new concept, so that every aspect of the logistics system is based on the protection of the environment on the basis of waste materials can be returned to the normal logistics process, but also to promote the healthy development of economy and consumption. It is to reduce the pollution of the environment, reduce resource consumption as the goal, the use of advanced logistics technology, planning and implementation of transport, storage, packaging, handling, circulation and other logistics activities.
Green logistics has the following characteristics: First, the green logistics and general logistics is the fundamental difference between the diversity of goals. General logistics is the economic interests as the fundamental pursuit of goals, leading to the contradiction between environmental interests. Green logistics is the environmental interests and economic interests as a common pursuit of the goal, the pursuit of environmental benefits and economic benefits of a win-win situation. Modern green logistics management emphasizes the overall and long-term interests, emphasizing the full range of environmental concerns, reflects the corporate green image, is a new logistics management trends.
Second, the concept of environmental protection runs through the whole process of green logistics. From the forward logistics operation to the recycling of waste resources for the recycling of resources, from the logistics system planning to the management of logistics activities, environmental protection is to evaluate the logistics system is effective and reasonable important indicators.
Third, from the scope of green logistics activities, it includes both individual green logistics operations (such as green transport, green packaging, green circulation processing, etc.), but also for the realization of resource recycling and waste recycling logistics.
Fourth, the green logistics focus on cooperation between enterprises, to seek economic and environmental symbiotic enterprise development strategy.
The implementation of green logistics is not only the business thing, but also must be from the perspective of government constraints, the modern logistics system to strengthen management, and jointly build a green logistics development framework.
2, green logistics on the sustainable development of enterprises
The construction of green logistics system is an unavoidable choice for enterprises in the future development. It is not only beneficial to the development of enterprises themselves, but also beneficial to the development of society as a whole. It can realize the win-win situation of enterprises and society. This is mainly manifested in the following aspect:
(1) green logistics is conducive to enterprises to obtain new competitive advantages The core idea of green logistics is to achieve enterprise logistics activities and social and ecological benefits of coordination, and thus to achieve sustainable development of enterprises. Increasingly serious environmental problems and increasingly stringent environmental regulations, so that enterprises in order to sustainable development, we must actively solve the economic problems in the economic activities, to give up the survival and development of enterprises endangering the way, the establishment of green logistics system, the pursuit of higher than the relative competition of competitors Advantage. A professor at Harvard University has profoundly described the problem: "If an enterprise wants to develop effectively in a highly competitive global market, it can not ignore the increasingly obvious environmental signals and continue to operate as in the past ... For enterprises, accepting this responsibility does not mean an economic loss, because it meets and exceeds the government and environmental organization's requirements for an industry, enabling companies to reduce their material and operating costs and thereby enhance their competitiveness. In fact, Good environmental behavior is like a business development motor rather than a barrier.
(2) green logistics (logistics system of the optimal management) to avoid waste of resources, enhance corporate social responsibility and improve its reputation With the concept of sustainable development of the people, the consumer acceptance and recognition of the business no longer Only depends on whether it can provide quality and cheap products and services, consumers are increasingly concerned about whether the enterprise has a sense of social responsibility, that is, whether the enterprise to save resources, whether the waste of raw materials for enterprises to recover, whether the enterprise focus on environmental protection And so on, which have become an important factor in determining corporate image and reputation. Green logistics from the product development and design, the entire production process, to its final consumption will be attached to these factors in its consideration, its construction will not only reduce the cost of old products and raw materials recovery, but also help improve the reputation of enterprises, increase Its brand value and life, to extend the product life cycle, which indirectly enhance the competitiveness of enterprises.
(3) Green logistics system is an effective measure to meet the requirements of national laws With the social progress and economic development, the world's increasingly scarce resources, and because of the environmental pollution caused by the production further intensified, in order to achieve population, resources and environment (1987), the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992), the Montreal Protocol and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, (1993), the Agreement on Trade and Environment (1994), the Kyoto Protocol (1997), etc .; China has enacted a series of laws and regulations such as the Environmental Protection Law. These laws require that the manufacturer of the product be responsible for the pollution caused by the product produced by it and take appropriate action, otherwise it will be severely punished. For example, the EU stipulates that tire manufacturers must recycle an old tire for disposal or reuse each time a new tire is sold. At the same time, some countries of the law on the one-time battery manufacturers have made a similar provision. Which requires the production of similar products, enterprises must build a corresponding green logistics system to reduce operational risk and violation of the cost of the law.
Three, green packaging
1, green packaging
Green packaging is not only a new concept in the packaging industry, but also a determinant of green logistics. Green packaging is in line with environmental requirements of the packaging, which requires packaging harmless ecological balance, harmless to human health. Specifically, the green packaging refers to the packaging materials to save resources, to minimize the packaging waste; after the use of recycling and recycling to become other useful materials; landfill less land and easy to degrade.
In international trade, any environmental protection measures may be conducive to environmental protection at the same time may become a trade barrier. And thus by the packaging of environmental requirements triggered by the trade dispute accelerated the development of green packaging in the world. Such as Austria in October 1993 began to implement the new packaging regulations; the British government requires packaging materials manufacturers to develop packaging waste recycling program; China will also since June 1, 2008, in all supermarkets, shopping malls, markets, etc. Commodity retail places to implement the plastic shopping bag paid use system, shall not be free to provide plastic shopping bags.
Green packaging is from the perspective of environmental protection on the green logistics system to improve the formation of a symbiosis with the environment of the logistics management system, it will be in the packaging industry and the logistics industry to be fully developed. Green packaging should generally have five aspects of the connotation:
First, the implementation of packaging reduction, packaging to meet the protection, convenience, sales and other functions under the conditions should be the least amount; Second, the packaging should be easy to reuse or easy recycling. Through the production of recycled products, incineration using heat, composting to improve soil and other measures to achieve the purpose of re-use; Third, the packaging waste can be degraded and corrupt, does not form permanent waste, and thus achieve the purpose of improving the soil.
Fourth, the packaging materials on the human body and biological should be non-toxic harmless, packaging materials should not contain toxic elements, halogen, heavy metals, or content should be controlled in the relevant standards; Fifth, packaging products from raw material collection, Manufacturing products, product use, waste recycling, until the final treatment of the whole process of life should not cause harm to the human body and the environment. The first four points should be the green packaging must have the requirements, the last point is based on the life cycle assessment, with the point of view of the system of green packaging put forward the ideal of the highest requirements.
Just as Quantum's Quantum hard drive packaging recycling program is based on LCA, the packaging recycling project PRP has been developed, saving not only about 40% of the supply chain's energy, but also reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40%, more importantly The project is able to save a lot of cost for Quantum Quantum and both customers.
Many developed countries have summarized the green packaging as "4RID", that is, Reduce, Reuse, Re-cycle, Refill, Degradable (degradable).
2, the implementation of green packaging measures
(1) to strengthen the green packaging awareness At present, many companies in the packaging of products is still more attention to the value of the use of goods on the protection of the environmental issues are rarely considered. In the "green wave" swept the world today, enterprises should establish a green marketing concept, to further understand the green packaging in the field of international circulation in the role and role. Should be clearly aware of the development of green packaging can not only reduce energy consumption and material consumption, reduce costs and reduce pollution, and can improve corporate image, increase consumer awareness and trust in the enterprise, thereby enhancing the international competitiveness of products.
(2) make full use of recyclable containers China's large population, high total packaging waste, causing serious pollution to the ecological environment. In addition, China is still a developing country, the economic strength is not strong, per capita resources, but the utilization rate of waste is very low, the paper recovery rate of only 15%. At the same time, China's annual use of large foreign exchange imports hundreds of thousands of tons of pulp, resulting in waste of resources at the same time lead to foreign exchange outflow. To solve this problem, recyclable containers should be widely used in logistics packaging. Recyclable containers have been part of the logistics system, and most of the reusable packaging is steel or plastic packaging.
However, there is a tendency for many small items and parts, such as spices, to be transported between the plants and the warehouse to the retail store using recyclable safeguards. The use of recyclable packaging is becoming more common, and they all share one thing in common: there is a complete marking system to control the circulation of containers.
In a recyclable packaging system, the parties must explicitly use such marks to maximize the use of the container. Otherwise, the container will be lost, misplaced or forgotten.